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Posts Tagged: history

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dailydot:

Watch Wonder Woman exit the golden age, enter the post-war era…. and morph from an active, standing character to a seated, passive love object.

Her shift from active hero to a passive object of male interest coincides with the massive displacement of women from the work force after 1945. The last three comics reflect the renewal of cultural pressure for women to resume their domestic roles now that male soldiers were home from the war.

This montage inspiration comes from Daniel Amrhein and Dragon Con’s packed Monday afternoon Feminism in Comics, featuring kellysue. The presentation looked at the ways Wonder Woman’s status as an icon for women has changed and evolved over the decades.

Afterwards, the DC comics track hosted this excellent panel on current trends in the comic industry. (Spoiler: they’re much better than this one.)

Source: dailydot
Video

thebrainscoop:

thecrashcourse:

The Big Bang: Crash Course Big History #1

In which John Green, Hank Green, and Emily Graslie teach you about, well, everything. Big History is the history of everything. We’re going to start with the Big Bang, take you right through all of history (recorded and otherwise), and even talk a little bit about the future. It is going to be awesome. In the awe-inspiring sense of the word awesome. In this episode, we walk you through the start of everything: The Big Bang. We’ll look at how the universe unfolded at its very beginning, and how everything in the universe that we know today came into being. So that’s kind of a big deal, right?

For more information, visit www.bighistoryproject.com

So… this is a big announcement!

The Big History Project is what I would have loved to experience in my high school classroom. It contextualizes… everything. Instead of putting up arbitrary barriers around subjects, it encourages participants to approach history - history of science, math, the earth, our solar system, civilization - in the only way we can begin to make sense of it all, which is through relational context. 

And I’m really, really proud to announce that I’ve got a few minor guest hosting roles throughout the series! It’s a big honor to be asked to participate and serve as Scientific Claims Tester. Plus I got to hang out in the Crash Course studio like whaaaaaaaat

Source: thecrashcourse
Video

mx-ro:

brown-likeme:

nizhonibird:

sikssaapo-p:

THE TRUTH OF NATIVE AMERICANS BEFORE THE GENOCIDE

Gotta put this on blast.
We never needed a white savior.

I hate this country.

What I learned from this video:

  • 100 million Native Americans died at the hands of white colonists
  • Instead of planting crops the colonists spent their days digging random holes in the ground looking for gold. They started starving and dug up Indian corpses to eat. They took Indian prisoners and forced them to teach the colonists how to farm
  • Native Americans had massive cities with tens of thousands of well constructed houses, intricate water canals and large merchant areas.
  • The Native Americans used soaps, deodorants and breath sweeteners while colonists never bathed or even took of their clothes
  • There was a delousing policy with the mantra Nits create Lice; nits being Native American babies, so their goal was to kill every Indian, including babies 
  • In the 1700’s 80% of the Federal Budget went towards eradicating the Native American population so they could take their developed farmland
  • Colonists leaders went town after town killing men women and children under the approval of George Washington
  • "Pursue Indians to extermination" -Thomas Jefferson
  • California governor (1849-1851): “extermination must continue to be waged until the Indian becomes extinct”

The main factor which prevented Native American extinction was the fact they were used for slave labor. The most prized Native Americans were young girls who were said to be valued for labor and lust (that one white dude in your ethnic studies class that says he’s 1/36th Cherokee?)

In modern times children were forced into Indian Boarding Schools whose goal was to “Kill the Indian in them”. It was federal policy. They were beaten if they used their native tongue, they were forced to dress and style their hair like whites 

This country was literally built on terrorism and mass murder. White people are savage terrorists.

Until, this is taught in schools everywhere- “history class” is merely a racism propaganda course.

(via notimpossiblejustabitunlikely)

Source: sikssaapo-p
Photo Set

sleepy-socialist:

vivelamours:

The Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975 (2011), Göran Hugo Olsson

You heard it right folks, the FBI considered free breakfasts for poor children to be the most dangerous internal threat to the country. Literally the kind of thing Jesus would do was the most dangerous threat to the country.

(via theteratophile)

Source: vivelamours
Photo Set

dynamicafrica:

Today, September 8th, is the 60th birthday of Ruby Nell Bridges - a woman who, being the first black child to attend an all-white school in New Orleans in 1960, underwent a traumatizing ordeal that came to signify the deeply troubled state of race relations in America.

On her first day of school at William Frantz Elementary School, during a 1997 NewsHour interview Bridges recalled that she was perplexed by the site that befell, thinking that it was some sort of Mardi Gras celebration:

"Driving up I could see the crowd, but living in New Orleans, I actually thought it was Mardi Gras. There was a large crowd of people outside of the school. They were throwing things and shouting, and that sort of goes on in New Orleans at Mardi Gras.”

Only six-years-old at the time, little Ruby had to deal with a slew of disgusting and violent harassment, beginning with threats of violence that prompted then President Eisenhower to dispatch U.S Marshals as her official escorts, to teachers refusing to teach her and a woman who put a black baby doll in a coffin and demonstrated outside the school in protest of Ruby’s presence there. This particular ordeal had a profound effect on young Ruby who said that it “scared me more than the nasty things people screamed at us.”

Only one teacher, Barbara Henry, would teach Ruby and did so for over a year with Ruby being the only pupil in her class.

The Bridges family suffered greatly for their brave decision. Her father lost his job, they were barred from shopping at their local grocery store, her grandparents, who were sharecroppers, were forcibly removed from their land, not to mention the psychological effect this entire ordeal had on her family. There were, however, members of their community - both black and white - who gathered behind the Bridges family in a show of support, including providing her father with a new job and taking turns to babysit Ruby.

Part of her experience was immortalized in a 1964 Norman Rockwell painting, pictured above, titled The Problem We All Live With. Her entire story was made into a TV movie released in 1998.

Despite the end of the segregation of schools in the United States, studies and reports show that the situation is worse now than it was in the 1960s.

Today, still living in New Orleans, Briges works as an activist, who has spoken at TEDx, and is now chair of the Ruby Bridges Foundation.

(via vintagegal)

Source: dynamicafrica
Photo

thecivilwarparlor:

Missing Chapter From America’s History Books

One In Four Of America’s Cowboys Were African-American

Many of the slaves in the 17th and 18th centuries were familiar with cattle herding from their homelands of West Africa. This brings historians the question of the name “Cowboy” and whether or not it was made from slave cow herders.

  • On some Texas trails, about a quarter of cowboys were black.

African American cowboys were largely African American freedmen after the Civil War who were drawn to cowboy life, in part because there was not quite as much discrimination in the west as in other areas of American society at the time. For enslaved Blacks the West offered freedom and refuge from the bonds of slavery. It also gave African Americans a chance at better earnings. . After the Civil War many were employed as horsebreakers and for other tasks, but few of them became ranch foremen or managers. Some black cowboys took up careers as rodeo performers or were hired as federal peace officers in Indian Territory. Others ultimately owned their own farms and ranches.

  • Hundreds of black cowboys were among the very first hands who drove huge herds along trails to Abilene, Kansas, the cattle-selling center of the Old West.  They were especially skilled in vetting horses. When herding cattle, many black riders rode “on point,” ahead of the dust. Black cowboys were forced to do the hardest work with cattle, such as bronco busting, they had special skills with breaking in steeds.

Photo: No original source found, possible circa 1913 http://www.geni.com/projects/Black-Cowboys/1986

http://blackamericaweb.com/2012/11/19/little-known-black-history-fact-black-cowboys/

http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=24166

(via damnhistrionics)

Source: thecivilwarparlor
Answer
  • Question: Oh, oh, that is definitely not nearly enough Prohibition history. I've never before run across those analysis/critiques you mentioned, which is wild because it's one of my favorite eras to read about. You wouldn't happen to know whereabouts I could find more info on the historical context bits? - desiderii
  • Answer:

    scifigrl47:

    copperbadge:

    I can give you some starting places, but the opinions expressed in that post were an amalgam of a lot of different study, not all of which I have right to hand at this point :D

    For the interactions between feminism and Prohibition, the Ken Burns documentary Prohibition is probably your best bet. It is very Ken Burns — lots of still images and soulful Appalachian Guitar — but it traces what we think of as Prohibition back to its roots in 19th century feminism, where women campaigned against alcohol not because it was “a sin” or “bad” but because they wanted to defend their sisters from men who would go straight from work to the bar and straight from the bar to assaulting their wives. When we’re taught about Prohibition we’re given these images of super-conservative middle-class hatchet-faced old broads trying to dictate morality to the rest of the country, but what was actually happening was a bunch of freethinking social rebels were desperate to stop men from constantly attacking and murdering their wives.  

    An examination of class and the way Prohibition interacted with it is harder to pin down because noooooooobody wants to talk about it, since it is deeply uncomfortably echoed in modern society. The modern war on drugs is a very thinly veiled War On People Of Color, just as Prohibition in the early 20th century was really Prohibition For The Working Class. (Boy did that backfire; booze lords were the noveau riche by the time Prohibition was repealed, and were of course one reason it was repealed: segments of the working class, including oh my god immigrants, were gaining too much power.)

    The prohibition of marijuana in America, just to use the most talked-about example, was literally just a justification to attack a high-use population: blue-collar Mexican immigrants. (For more on this, see the excellent documentary “Grass: The History of Marijuana”.) There are statistics that go something like 14% of African-Americans are drug users, but they make up 37% of all individuals arrested for drug possession or use. Just recently, in Tennessee, they decided to drug test everyone receiving state aid, assuming they’d be able to cut a lot of aid by refusing to provide it for drug users. One person in 800 testees was positive. Oops. (Also, why the eff would we refuse aid to people who clearly need it the most, Jesus this country is so dysfunctional.)

    Anyway the point is, we are living in an era of Prohibition in a social sense; our government is using the ban on drugs to attack a specific population, just like they did then. (They never stopped, really; it was communism for most of the mid-century, and when that stopped working, it became cocaine/crack in the 80s, and “terrorism” in the 21st century, where the Patriot Act is mainly used in drug busts.)

    Googling terms like “war on drugs racism” or “prohibition racism” will probably get you on the path, though tread carefully, some of the sites that pop up are a bit more legit than others. 

    And all of this is the reason you can do a lot of reading about Prohibition in America and never hit this stuff — the narrative of Prohibition is carefully crafted to set it apart as a kind of fantasyland that has no bearing on modern prohibition. You get this weird situation where you’re not really taught why at that specific moment in time (two generations post-emancipation, ten years after a world war) the idea of a SUPER RESTRICTIVE FEDERAL LAW was so appealing. You’re not taught who the targets of the law were. 90% of what you get is the romanticised gangster: shootouts in Chicago, rum-running in New York’s harbors, funny stories about how sacramental wine imports (sacramental wine was exempt from Prohibition) shot up 200%.

    And don’t get me wrong, I enjoy reading about that; the number of gangster documentaries I’ve read is high. But Prohibition’s like a section of a Disney park, isolated and floating in its own little mythology, because if kids were actually taught about the social ramifications of it, they’d start asking some super-uncomfortable questions. 

    Also, there is a very, very weird intersection of the Ku Klux Klan and prohibition.  Because, not surprising, a lot of the people involved in the crafting, sale, and public consumption of alcohol were immigrants (specifically a fairly large population of Germans who ran the major breweries.)  There was actually a resurgence in Klan membership when their major public rallying cry was prohibition, and they strongly supported the creation of the institution and strongly opposed ending it. 

    Actually looking into it, there was a definite class warfare going on, between those who could afford to, and preferred to, drink at home, and those who drank publicly, in areas that attracted the ‘wrong sort’ of people.  As Sam said, attacking the behavior (morally defensible) gave them a pass to attack the people (not so much so.)

Source: copperbadge
Answer
  • Question: how do you feel about playboy - Anonymous
  • Answer:

    elizabitchtaylor:

    I enjoy reading vintage Playboy from the 50s/60s and my desired aesthetic is basically “early 60s Playmate”, but I don’t like Hugh Hefner and I don’t consider him a trailblazer or sexual liberation icon.

    The people who deserve the credit for Playboy’s success are the women who posed for the pictorials, worked at the clubs, and ran the show behind-the-scenes. When I post pictures of vintage Playmates I make sure to include their names so people know the identities of the women who made Playboy such a success. 

    If you’re interested in reading about the history of Playboy, I suggest Bunny: The Real Story of Playboy which was published in the 1980s and reveals some surprising truths about the true history of the company.

Source: elizabitchtaylor
Photo
lilamaerad:

chels-e-lately:

emerald-avenger:

tarteauxfraises:

kendrajbean:

In the mid-1930s, an Australian journalist visited Germany to report on the rise of fascism and interview Adolf Hitler. The atrocities she saw there, which included the public beating of Jews, forever changed the course of her young life. Nancy Wake, who died Sunday at age 98, would spend World War II fighting Nazism tooth and nail, saving thousands of Allied lives, winding up at the top of the Gestapo’s most-wanted list and ultimately receiving more decorations than any other servicewoman.
Wake made her way from Spain to Britain, where she convinced special agents to train her as a spy and guerilla operative. In April 1944 she parachuted into France to coordinate attacks on German troops and installations prior to the D-Day invasion, leading a band of 7,000 resistance fighters. In order to earn the esteem of the men under her command, she reportedly challenged them to drinking contests and would inevitably drink them under the table. But her fierceness alone may have won her enough respect: During the violent months preceding the liberation of Paris, Wake killed a German guard with a single karate chop to the neck, executed a women who had been spying for the Germans, shot her way out of roadblocks and biked 70 hours through perilous Nazi checkpoints to deliver radio codes for the Allies. (via)



I’m going to keep talking about this until you all buy her god damn biography. Because I don’t think you guys understand.
She was NUMBER ONE on the Gestapo’s most wanted list during the war.  There was a 5 MILLION FRANC prize on her head.
They called her the White Mouse because of her skill for escaping certain death. 
She was parachuting into a camp once and got tangled in a tree. A French soldier saw her flailing around and said, “I hope that all the trees in France bear such beautiful fruit this year.” She answered only, “Don’t give me that French shit.”
She would smuggle messages, food, and supplies in a supply truck and when she passed German posts she’d wink at the soldiers and say, “Do you want to search me?” They never did.
She found out at one point that her men had been hiding a female German spy, protecting her. The rule was to kill them, but the men didn’t have the heart. But Nancy Wake did. And she never regretted it.
When she killed a man with her bare hands, it was an SS sentry who’d spotted her and she killed him to prevent him from raising the alarm during the raid. She would later say of it, “They’d taught us this judo-chop stuff with the flat of the hand at SOE, and I practiced away at it. But this was the only time I used it - whack - and it killed him all right. I was really surprised.”
She died in 2011, 3 weeks before her 99th birthday.
If you don’t think Nancy Wake deserves a movie and a TV show and all the damn recognition in the world, you’re wrong. 

Yaaassssssss can we get a movie? This is like inglorious bastards BUT REAL AND WITH A WOMAN


I did a whole school project on Nancy Wake. And then it kind of kicked off a lifelong fascination with the ladies of the SOE in general. And I still know far too much about them and can babble about them at length (this was also when I learned about the Righteous Among Nations to be honest).

lilamaerad:

chels-e-lately:

emerald-avenger:

tarteauxfraises:

kendrajbean:

In the mid-1930s, an Australian journalist visited Germany to report on the rise of fascism and interview Adolf Hitler. The atrocities she saw there, which included the public beating of Jews, forever changed the course of her young life. Nancy Wake, who died Sunday at age 98, would spend World War II fighting Nazism tooth and nail, saving thousands of Allied lives, winding up at the top of the Gestapo’s most-wanted list and ultimately receiving more decorations than any other servicewoman.

Wake made her way from Spain to Britain, where she convinced special agents to train her as a spy and guerilla operative. In April 1944 she parachuted into France to coordinate attacks on German troops and installations prior to the D-Day invasion, leading a band of 7,000 resistance fighters. In order to earn the esteem of the men under her command, she reportedly challenged them to drinking contests and would inevitably drink them under the table. But her fierceness alone may have won her enough respect: During the violent months preceding the liberation of Paris, Wake killed a German guard with a single karate chop to the neck, executed a women who had been spying for the Germans, shot her way out of roadblocks and biked 70 hours through perilous Nazi checkpoints to deliver radio codes for the Allies. (via)

I’m going to keep talking about this until you all buy her god damn biography. Because I don’t think you guys understand.

She was NUMBER ONE on the Gestapo’s most wanted list during the war.  There was a 5 MILLION FRANC prize on her head.

They called her the White Mouse because of her skill for escaping certain death. 

She was parachuting into a camp once and got tangled in a tree. A French soldier saw her flailing around and said, “I hope that all the trees in France bear such beautiful fruit this year.” She answered only, “Don’t give me that French shit.”

She would smuggle messages, food, and supplies in a supply truck and when she passed German posts she’d wink at the soldiers and say, “Do you want to search me?” They never did.

She found out at one point that her men had been hiding a female German spy, protecting her. The rule was to kill them, but the men didn’t have the heart. But Nancy Wake did. And she never regretted it.

When she killed a man with her bare hands, it was an SS sentry who’d spotted her and she killed him to prevent him from raising the alarm during the raid. She would later say of it, “They’d taught us this judo-chop stuff with the flat of the hand at SOE, and I practiced away at it. But this was the only time I used it - whack - and it killed him all right. I was really surprised.”

She died in 2011, 3 weeks before her 99th birthday.

If you don’t think Nancy Wake deserves a movie and a TV show and all the damn recognition in the world, you’re wrong. 

Yaaassssssss can we get a movie? This is like inglorious bastards BUT REAL AND WITH A WOMAN

I did a whole school project on Nancy Wake. And then it kind of kicked off a lifelong fascination with the ladies of the SOE in general. And I still know far too much about them and can babble about them at length (this was also when I learned about the Righteous Among Nations to be honest).

(via awesomewomen)

Source: kendrajbean
Quote

"

I asked seven anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians if they would rather have been a typical Indian or a typical European in 1491. None was delighted by the question, because it required judging the past by the standards of today—a fallacy disparaged as “presentism” by social scientists. But every one chose to be an Indian. Some early colonists gave the same answer. Horrifying the leaders of Jamestown and Plymouth, scores of English ran off to live with the Indians. My ancestor shared their desire, which is what led to the trumped-up murder charges against him—or that’s what my grandfather told me, anyway.

As for the Indians, evidence suggests that they often viewed Europeans with disdain. The Hurons, a chagrined missionary reported, thought the French possessed “little intelligence in comparison to themselves.” Europeans, Indians said, were physically weak, sexually untrustworthy, atrociously ugly, and just plain dirty. (Spaniards, who seldom if ever bathed, were amazed by the Aztec desire for personal cleanliness.) A Jesuit reported that the “Savages” were disgusted by handkerchiefs: “They say, we place what is unclean in a fine white piece of linen, and put it away in our pockets as something very precious, while they throw it upon the ground.” The Micmac scoffed at the notion of French superiority. If Christian civilization was so wonderful, why were its inhabitants leaving?

Like people everywhere, Indians survived by cleverly exploiting their environment. Europeans tended to manage land by breaking it into fragments for farmers and herders. Indians often worked on such a grand scale that the scope of their ambition can be hard to grasp. They created small plots, as Europeans did (about 1.5 million acres of terraces still exist in the Peruvian Andes), but they also reshaped entire landscapes to suit their purposes. A principal tool was fire, used to keep down underbrush and create the open, grassy conditions favorable for game. Rather than domesticating animals for meat, Indians retooled whole ecosystems to grow bumper crops of elk, deer, and bison. The first white settlers in Ohio found forests as open as English parks—they could drive carriages through the woods. Along the Hudson River the annual fall burning lit up the banks for miles on end; so flashy was the show that the Dutch in New Amsterdam boated upriver to goggle at the blaze like children at fireworks. In North America, Indian torches had their biggest impact on the Midwestern prairie, much or most of which was created and maintained by fire. Millennia of exuberant burning shaped the plains into vast buffalo farms. When Indian societies disintegrated, forest invaded savannah in Wisconsin, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, and the Texas Hill Country. Is it possible that the Indians changed the Americas more than the invading Europeans did? “The answer is probably yes for most regions for the next 250 years or so” after Columbus, William Denevan wrote, “and for some regions right up to the present time.”

"

-

Quoted from the essay "1941" written by Charles C. Mann, about the major impact that Native Americans had on the Americas (ecologically and culturally) before white people invaded, bringing their diseases and shoving Christianity down the Indians’ throats and murdering them and banning their cultures.

Check out the whole piece (which is rather long). (P.S thanks to @cazalis for sending me this great link)

another excerpt:

Human history, in Crosby’s interpretation, is marked by two world-altering centers of invention: the Middle East and central Mexico, where Indian groups independently created nearly all of the Neolithic innovations, writing included. The Neolithic Revolution began in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago. In the next few millennia humankind invented the wheel, the metal tool, and agriculture. The Sumerians eventually put these inventions together, added writing, and became the world’s first civilization. Afterward Sumeria’s heirs in Europe and Asia frantically copied one another’s happiest discoveries; innovations ricocheted from one corner of Eurasia to another, stimulating technological progress. Native Americans, who had crossed to Alaska before Sumeria, missed out on the bounty. “They had to do everything on their own,” Crosby says. Remarkably, they succeeded.

When Columbus appeared in the Caribbean, the descendants of the world’s two Neolithic civilizations collided, with overwhelming consequences for both. American Neolithic development occurred later than that of the Middle East, possibly because the Indians needed more time to build up the requisite population density. Without beasts of burden they could not capitalize on the wheel (for individual workers on uneven terrain skids are nearly as effective as carts for hauling), and they never developed steel. But in agriculture they handily outstripped the children of Sumeria. Every tomato in Italy, every potato in Ireland, and every hot pepper in Thailand came from this hemisphere. Worldwide, more than half the crops grown today were initially developed in the Americas.

Maize, as corn is called in the rest of the world, was a triumph with global implications. Indians developed an extraordinary number of maize varieties for different growing conditions, which meant that the crop could and did spread throughout the planet. Central and Southern Europeans became particularly dependent on it; maize was the staple of Serbia, Romania, and Moldavia by the nineteenth century. Indian crops dramatically reduced hunger, Crosby says, which led to an Old World population boom.

Along with peanuts and manioc, maize came to Africa and transformed agriculture there, too. “The probability is that the population of Africa was greatly increased because of maize and other American Indian crops,” Crosby says. “Those extra people helped make the slave trade possible.” Maize conquered Africa at the time when introduced diseases were leveling Indian societies. The Spanish, the Portuguese, and the British were alarmed by the death rate among Indians, because they wanted to exploit them as workers. Faced with a labor shortage, the Europeans turned their eyes to Africa. The continent’s quarrelsome societies helped slave traders to siphon off millions of people. The maize-fed population boom, Crosby believes, let the awful trade continue without pumping the well dry.

Back home in the Americas, Indian agriculture long sustained some of the world’s largest cities. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán dazzled Hernán Cortés in 1519; it was bigger than Paris, Europe’s greatest metropolis. The Spaniards gawped like hayseeds at the wide streets, ornately carved buildings, and markets bright with goods from hundreds of miles away. They had never before seen a city with botanical gardens, for the excellent reason that none existed in Europe. The same novelty attended the force of a thousand men that kept the crowded streets immaculate. (Streets that weren’t ankle-deep in sewage! The conquistadors had never heard of such a thing.) Central America was not the only locus of prosperity. Thousands of miles north, John Smith, of Pocahontas fame, visited Massachusetts in 1614, before it was emptied by disease, and declared that the land was “so planted with Gardens and Corne fields, and so well inhabited with a goodly, strong and well proportioned people … [that] I would rather live here than any where.”

and another excerpt:

In as yet unpublished research the archaeologists Eduardo Neves, of the University of São Paulo; Michael Heckenberger, of the University of Florida; and their colleagues examined terra preta in the upper Xingu, a huge southern tributary of the Amazon. Not all Xingu cultures left behind this living earth, they discovered. But the ones that did generated it rapidly—suggesting to Woods that terra preta was created deliberately. In a process reminiscent of dropping microorganism-rich starter into plain dough to create sourdough bread, Amazonian peoples, he believes, inoculated bad soil with a transforming bacterial charge. Not every group of Indians there did this, but quite a few did, and over an extended period of time.

When Woods told me this, I was so amazed that I almost dropped the phone. I ceased to be articulate for a moment and said things like “wow” and “gosh.” Woods chuckled at my reaction, probably because he understood what was passing through my mind. Faced with an ecological problem, I was thinking, the Indians fixed it. They were in the process of terraforming the Amazon when Columbus showed up and ruined everything.

(via badass-bharat-deafmuslim-artista)

(via cimness)

Source: badass-bharat-deafmuslim-artista
Text

lastrealindians:

Sept. 5, 1877.
Today we honor CrazyHorse; he was assassinated on this day 137 years ago. Crazy Horse was all action, in addition to conducting mounted guerrilla warfare with such tactical brilliance that his methods are still studied today by military academies, Crazy Horse was as brave as humans have ever been , repeatedly dismounting mid-battle to improve shooting accuracy; he made many dare-rides (riding broadside in firing range of soldiers to empty their ammo and embolden his warriors), including the most pivotal during the Battle of the Little BigHorn in 1876 that prevented Crook, Reno and Custer’s soldiers from uniting, it turned the tide of that battle. Crazy Horse orchestrated the Fetterman fight as well, a complete rubbing out of soldiers. Crazy Horse had many horses shot from under him; He was only interested in protecting the buffalo economy and our inherent right to determine our destiny. They considered him a hostile because he wanted nothing to do with American encroachment and stayed with the Northern Lakota, as they were known back then, who clung to their way of life. For that he was hated on majorly. Many prominent Oglala chiefs and former close friends turned on Crazy Horse at the prodding of United States agents and plotted his assassination the night before his death. On the day of his death the plan changed from killing him to arresting him; a mass of 800 Oglala and United States soldiers rode to arrest him, he fled them eventually surrendering under promise that he’d have a chance to explain himself. As soon as he saw they were simply going to jail him to neutralize him he resisted and was bayoneted by a soldier while being forcibly restrained by other Lakota. The U.S. Soldiers and those that turned on Crazy Horse resented the fact that the people still looked to him for leadership though stripped of his armaments, horses and recognition by the Feds (same was true of Sitting Bull). They wanted Crazy Horse to travel to Washington DC to meet the president and negotiate a cession of the Black Hills. Crazy Horse never went; he loved the Black Hills and he was vehemently opposed to the illegal annexation of the Black Hills by the United States as we are now #ReturnTheBlackHills. So we keep his legacy ALIVE by fighting our fights, not letting money, recognition or ego divide us, by being unbribable and never backing down. All we want is peace and dignity ; Crazy Horse never died.

Source: lastrealindians
Link

Better Identification of Viking Corpses Reveals: Half of the Warriors Were Female | Tor.com

juliedillon:

bisexualpiratequeen:

"Researchers at the University of Western Australia decided to revamp the way they studied Viking remains. Previously, researchers had misidentified skeletons as male simply because they were buried with their swords and shields. (Female remains were identified by their oval brooches, and not much else.) By studying osteological signs of gender within the bones themselves, researchers discovered that approximately half of the remains were actually female warriors, given a proper burial with their weapons.”

Women have always fought. We have always been there, ‘contributing to history’. Our own, modern sexism contributes to the erasure of it.

(Bolding mine)

"We have always been there, ‘contributing to history’. Our own, modern sexism contributes to the erasure of it."

(via dduane)

Source: bisexualpiratequeen
Photo Set

thepeoplesrecord:

10 intriguing female revolutionaries that you didn’t learn about in history class
August 24, 2014

We all know male revolutionaries like Che Guevara, but history often tends to gloss over the contributions of female revolutionaries that have sacrificed their time, efforts, and lives to work towards burgeoning systems and ideologies. Despite misconceptions, there are tons of women that have participated in revolutions throughout history, with many of them playing crucial roles. They may come from different points on the political spectrum, with some armed with weapons and some armed with nothing but a pen, but all fought hard for something that they believed in.

Let’s take a look at 10 of these female revolutionaries from all over the world that you probably won’t ever see plastered across a college student’s T-shirt.

Nadezhda Krupskaya
Many people know Nadezhda Krupskaya simply as Vladimir Lenin’s wife, but Nadezhda was a Bolshevik revolutionary and politician in her own right. She was heavily involved in a variety of political activities, including serving as the Soviet Union’s Deputy Minister of Education from 1929 until her death in 1939, and a number of educational pursuits. Prior to the revolution, she served as secretary of the Iskra group, managing continent-wide correspondence, much of which had to be decoded. After the revolution, she dedicated her life to improving education opportunities for workers and peasants, for example by striving to make libraries available to everyone.

Constance Markievicz
Constance Markievicz (née Gore-Booth) was an Anglo-Irish Countess, Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil politician, revolutionary nationalist, suffragette and socialist. She participated in many Irish independence efforts, including the Easter Rising of 1916, in which she had a leadership role. During the Rising, she wounded a British sniper before being forced to retreat and surrender. After, she was the only woman out of 70 to be put into solitary confinement. She was sentenced to death, but was pardoned based on her gender. Interestingly, the prosecuting counsel claimed that she begged “I am only a woman, you cannot shoot a woman”, while court records show she said “I do wish your lot had the decency to shoot me”. Constance was one of the first women in the world to hold a cabinet position (Minister for Labour of the Irish Republic, 1919–1922), and she was also the first woman elected to the British House of Commons (December 1918)—a position which she rejected due to the Sinn Féin abstentionist policy.

Petra Herrera
During the Mexican Revolution, female soldiers known as soldaderas went into combat along with the men although they often faced abuse. One of the most well-known of the soldaderas was Petra Herrera, who disguised her gender and went by the name “Pedro Herrera”. As Pedro, she established her reputation by demonstrating exemplary leadership (and blowing up bridges) and was able to reveal her gender in time. She participated in the second battle of Torreón on May 30, 1914 along with about 400 other women, even being named by some as being deserving of full credit for the battle. Unfortunately, Pancho Villa was likely unwilling to give credit to a woman and did not promote her to General. In response, Petra left Villa’s forces and formed her own all-woman brigade.

Nwanyeruwa
Nwanyeruwa, an Igbo woman in Nigeria, sparked a short war that is often called the first major challenge to British authority in West Africa during the colonial period. On November 18, 1929, an argument between Nwanyeruwa and a census man named Mark Emereuwa broke out after he told her to “count her goats, sheep and people.” Understanding this to mean she would be taxed (traditionally, women were not charged taxes), she discussed the situation with the other women and protests, deemed the Women’s War, began to occur over the course of two months. About 25,000 women all over the region were involved, protesting both the looming tax changes and the unrestricted power of the Warrant Chiefs. In the end, women’s position were greatly improved, with the British dropping their tax plans, as well as the forced resignation of many Warrant Chiefs.

Lakshmi Sehgal
Lakshmi Sahgal, colloquially known as “Captain Lakshmi”, was a revolutionary of the Indian independence movement, an officer of the Indian National Army, and later, the Minister of Women’s Affairs in the Azad Hind government. In the 40s, she commanded the Rani of Jhansi Regiment, an all-women regiment that aimed to overthrow British Raj in colonial India. The regiment was one of the very few all-female combat regiments of WWII on any side, and was named after another renowned female revolutionary in Indian history, Rani Lakshmibai, who was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Sophie Scholl
German revolutionary Sophie Scholl was a founding member of the non-violent Nazi resistance group The White Rose, which advocated for active resistance to Hitler’s regime through an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign. In February of 1943, she and other members were arrested for handing out leaflets at the University of Munich and sentenced to death by guillotine. Copies of the leaflet, retitled The Manifesto of the Students of Munich, were smuggled out of the country and millions were air-dropped over Germany by Allied forces later that year.

Blanca Canales
Blanca Canales was a Puerto Rican Nationalist who helped organize the Daughters of Freedom, the women’s branch of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. She was one of the few women in history to have led a revolt against the United States, known as the Jayuya Uprising. In 1948, a severely restricting bill known as the Gag Bill, or Law 53, was introduced that made it a crime to print, publish, sell, or exhibit any material intended to paralyze or destroy the insular government. In response, the Nationalists starting planning armed revolution. On October 30, 1950, Blanca and others took up arms which she had stored in her home and marched into the town of Jayuya, taking over the police station, burning down the post office, cutting the telephone wires, and raising the Puerto Rican flag in defiance of the Gag Law. As a result, the US President declared martial law and ordered Army and Air Force attacks on the town. The Nationalists held on for awhile, but were arrested and sentenced to life in prison after 3 days. Much of Jayuya was destroyed, and the incident was not fairly covered by US media, with the US President even saying it was “an incident between Puerto Ricans.”

Celia Sanchez
Most people know Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, but fewer people have heard of Celia Sanchez, the woman at the heart of the Cuban Revolution who has even been rumored to be the main decision-maker. After the March 10, 1952 coup, Celia joined the struggle against the Batista government. She was a founder of the 26th of July Movement, leader of combat squads throughout the revolution, controlled group resources, and even made the arrangements for the Granma landing, which transported 82 fighters from Mexico to Cuba in order to overthrow Batista. After the revolution, Celia remained with Castro until her death.

Kathleen Neal Cleaver
Kathleen Neal Cleaver was a member of the Black Panther Party and the first female member of the Party’s decision-making body. She served as spokesperson and press secretary and organized the national campaign to free the Party’s minister of defense, Huey Newton, who had been jailed. She and other women, such as Angela Davis, made up around 2/3 of the Party at one point, despite the notion that the BPP was overwhelmingly masculine.

Asmaa Mahfouz
Asmaa Mahfouz is a modern-day revolutionary who is credited with sparking the January 2011 uprising in Egypt through a video blog post encouraging others to join her in protest in Tahrir Square. She is considered one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution and is a prominent member of Egypt’s Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution.

These 10 women are but the tip of the iceberg when it comes to female revolutionaries. Let us know who you’d like to see in a list of female revolutionaries.

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(via saltysalmonella)

Source: thepeoplesrecord
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strugglingtobeheard:

atriptothemorg:

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

Six Facts About Harriet Tubman
1. Harriet Tubman’s birth name was Aramita (“Minty”) Ross. She was born enslaved in Maryland sometime in 1820.
2. Tubman escaped slavery with her brother, Ben and Harry, on September 17, 1849.

3. Tubman is most famous for her role as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, in which she led escaped slaves to freedom. Estimates vary, but Tubman is said to have helped anywhere from dozens to hundreds of slaves reach freedom. She was once quoted as saying, “I freed a thousand slaves. I could have freed a thousand more if only they knew they were slaves.”
4. During the Civil War, Tubman worked for the Union army as a cook, nurse, and spy. She was also the first woman to lead an expedition in the war and guided the Combahee River Raid, which freed 700 slaves. Decades later, the raid would inspire a groundbreaking group of black feminists called the Combahee River Collective.
5. Tubman’s life has inspired countless works for art, including poems, comic books, and films.
6. This year marks that 100th anniversary of Harriet Tubman’s death. Maryland has a series of commemorative events. 

The last one really hits me. She had only been dead for 100 years. 100 years. Like, white folks are going on and on about how slavery has been over for hundreds and hundreds of years.
But here is an escaped slave who liberated countless others that only died ONE HUNDRED YEARS ago. This is not the ancient past. This is still living history.

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

strugglingtobeheard:

atriptothemorg:

fuckyeahmarxismleninism:

Six Facts About Harriet Tubman

1. Harriet Tubman’s birth name was Aramita (“Minty”) Ross. She was born enslaved in Maryland sometime in 1820.

2. Tubman escaped slavery with her brother, Ben and Harry, on September 17, 1849.

Harriet_Tubman_Reward_Notice_1849.jpg

3. Tubman is most famous for her role as a conductor on the Underground Railroad, in which she led escaped slaves to freedom. Estimates vary, but Tubman is said to have helped anywhere from dozens to hundreds of slaves reach freedom. She was once quoted as saying, “I freed a thousand slaves. I could have freed a thousand more if only they knew they were slaves.”

4. During the Civil War, Tubman worked for the Union army as a cook, nurse, and spy. She was also the first woman to lead an expedition in the war and guided the Combahee River Raid, which freed 700 slaves. Decades later, the raid would inspire a groundbreaking group of black feminists called the Combahee River Collective.

5. Tubman’s life has inspired countless works for art, including poemscomic books, and films.

6. This year marks that 100th anniversary of Harriet Tubman’s death. Maryland has a series of commemorative events

The last one really hits me. She had only been dead for 100 years. 100 years. Like, white folks are going on and on about how slavery has been over for hundreds and hundreds of years.

But here is an escaped slave who liberated countless others that only died ONE HUNDRED YEARS ago. This is not the ancient past. This is still living history.

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

(via damnhistrionics)

Source: fuckyeahmarxismleninism
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telesilla:

nevver:

Happy Labor Day

Never forget that people died for the worker’s rights we enjoy today. And if, for even a moment, you think we don’t need them now, just think about the employers who short their workers by one hour so they don’t have to offer health insurance. Think of the companies that fight the idea of giving their workers a living wage. Think of Walmart saying that their workers should apply for government assistance if they can’t make it on their shitty salaries.
My sister and I both did the same job—processing insurance claims—for different companies. Even though my job required more knowledge, she was getting a significantly larger paycheck because she was union. It’s not just industrial or service workers who benefit from strong unions.
Happy Labor Day!

telesilla:

nevver:

Happy Labor Day

Never forget that people died for the worker’s rights we enjoy today. And if, for even a moment, you think we don’t need them now, just think about the employers who short their workers by one hour so they don’t have to offer health insurance. Think of the companies that fight the idea of giving their workers a living wage. Think of Walmart saying that their workers should apply for government assistance if they can’t make it on their shitty salaries.

My sister and I both did the same job—processing insurance claims—for different companies. Even though my job required more knowledge, she was getting a significantly larger paycheck because she was union. It’s not just industrial or service workers who benefit from strong unions.

Happy Labor Day!

(via dsudis)

Source: nevver